Cultural mix with Western civilization most often leads to value erosion as being witnessed in Nigeria record of historical development. The culture of a tribe or ethnic nationality can be expressed through language dialect, wear styles, habits and the way we go about interpersonal and intrapersonal sociological relationship, our response to trades and professions have peculiarities to each of the types.
The laws (rules of dos and don’ts and the penalties to prevent affront or criminality) that regulate affairs sanity is also part of the culture of a place or geographical contraption including the way we build our houses and governance styles most of which is monarchial. It reflects in our ceremonies, songs and even eating and some habits exhibit able to distinguish man from animals.
It is equally interesting to note that every culture has the spiritual aspect in form of traditional religions fashioned towards some deities, past heroes and heroines attached with some mysteries. Where these religious and their likes that are universal in nature with claim of divine source fail to achieve in this respect, western civilization overtakes people’s psyche into waywardness and frivolities. However, it is interesting to note that all religions-traditional or universal, refined or crude agree on the following social and spiritual values:
Nation building is a system synthesis demanded of all stakeholders to unite in focus and will through purposeful credible leaders with vision and mission for values and standard bequeath able to the next generation. Fortunately, every tribe or ethnic nationality has guiding ethics and customs with which they relate and socialize, and peculiar communication tool with which they transmit the culture to the next generation.
Africa for example, though with different cultures, languages and people are united in the message and focus of their cultures that promote values and develop our people to meet with the challenges of today and tomorrow, after all, shelter, food varieties and clothing types may vary from one tribe to the other, nation to another nation, the objectives pass the same functions and goal to humanity.
Suffice it now to say that the subject matter Nation Building and Imperatives of Fostering the Virtues of Integrity, Patience and Tolerance for Achieving National Growth and Aspiration: The challenges of Leadership is better perceived though Ubuntu concept, for the disintegrated and eroded values are to be restored after the balkanization of Africa, cultural invasion of the white and idiosyncrasy effect of globalization on the Africans, Nigeria inclusive.
Muyungi (2013) defines the concept of Ubuntu as the key to understanding of traditional Africa ethics which is weighty, solid and consistent. In African ethics, a person fulfils his or her humanity (humans) when he or she is capable of respecting self and others’ humanity. This aligns with the concept of keeping good neighborliness as well as respecting the fundamental human rights of others Ubuntu philosophy was applied as a crucial instrument for conflict resolution in the Democratic Republic of Congo and could be likened to the natural way of life that promotes hospitality in a typical Yoruba home, Ibadan in particular.
Ubuntu can be described as a community based mindset in which the welfare of the group is greater than the welfare of a single individual group. It upholds the values of humanness, caring, respect, compassion and associated values to ensure a happy and qualitative human community life in a family spirit (Broodryk, 2004:31).
Ibadan concept of hospitality fixes into the Ubuntu concept above as it stands for a commutarian morality which anchors on dignity realized through personal growth and fulfillment. Ibadan culture of hospitality, passionate accommodation of visitors, keeping of extended family, building compound for extended family relationship, accommodation, entertaining to satisfy visitors, associating them to self (our father, our mother etc), sense of individualism is anathemic to Ibadan indigene.
The moral possibility of Ubuntu and Ibadan culture of hospitality is related intrinsically to human happiness and fulfillment within a community. (Mugunyi, 2013) reveals that demand to participate in community, yet not only for the sake of personal fulfillment, but also for the sake of the fulfillment of the community, for only in nation building participation is personal fulfillment thought possible. The challenge is therefore on how to achieve Ubuntu concept to promote:
Leadership definition is through various perspectives but all turn towards service and development. It is a moral challenge for ethical practice of transparency and accountability for credibility. These are: leadership by traits, leadership by activities and leadership by orientation
Leaders must be conscious of his subordinates to be able to carry them along as well as identify them as classical classification and management- the prime movers; the lackadaisical and catalytic rebellious.
Ubuntu concept of Humanity focus concept of Africa philosophy fits in into value orientation of leadership that cut across transactional-transformation leadership paradigm as universal (Bass, 1997) as can be observed in a wide variety of organization, government and cultures.
The best leadership option must be able to articulate a vision, redefine organizational problems, suggest solutions, transform and energize followers and be an example and mentor to followers (Evers, 2000). However, transactional leadership is motivation oriented but demand for honesty, consistency, responsibility to accomplish, aim high:
On the other hand transformational leadership has the following characteristic that is Ubuntu African philosophy complaint:
The leader’s integrity must be able to create ethnical cultures for the system or government in order that the corporate vision and mission statements are achieved to the letter. A strong sense of ethical principles is not only profitable but creates a culture of well-being for everyone.
Professor S. A. Olagoke, is of Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State. Being Excerpts of his keynote address at the Anniversary of Integrity International held at the Chelsea Hotel, Abuja, 16th July 2016
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